Collect everything you have gathered and put it in a folder, an electronic document, a notebook or whatever you like. You may want to sift through your research at a separate sitting from gathering it. Or just go ahead and sprinkle your research in right when you find it. Or you may just want to revise what you have as you proceed, retaining a nice conversational tone by directly addressing your audience.
A literature review can provide a concise examination and discussion of evidence in a particular area. Annotated bibliographies directed writing article format for publication literature reviews have some similarities. As with the literature review, an annotated bibli- ography is an account of the research that has been carried out in a given area.
However, an annotated bibliography is usually just a list of relevant sources with an accompanying brief sum- mary. There are several commonly used formats for literature re- views that will be discussed in brief.
However, this article will concentrate on the literature review as a secondary data anal- ysis leading to a publishable piece of work. Systematic Reviews The systematic review is related to the meta-analysis, which is an attempt to quantitatively condense the results from sev- eral papers into a single statistic .
Creating a systematic re- view allows for increased power and precision in estimating effects and risks. In addition, the systematic review is an in- valuable practice tool.
Large quantities of information can be evaluated and synthesized into a shorter document. This allows clinicians to keep abreast of new developments without having to track down and read several long reports.
Organiza- tions or policy makers can use systematic reviews to help for- mulate guidelines to promote the use of best evidence in practice . The Cochrane Collaboration is perhaps one of the best- known proponents of systematic reviews designed to answer clinical questions about the effectiveness of treatments.
For example, the Cochrane review on interventions for relieving the pain and discomfort of screening mammography exam- ined seven randomized controlled trials involving 1, women . Among other things, the report concluded that giving women written or verbal information about the proce- dure before the mammogram could reduce their pain or discomfort.
This type of review is a research project in its own right and therefore should be conducted with appropriate rigour. The secondary data review can be undertaken whether there is little known about a subject or where there is a wealth of information available.
Either way, the researcher should begin with a clear statement of purpose or a research question . The approach to organizing and analyzing the data acquired in the secondary data search is more qualitative in nature and the material is often organized by theme.
Introduction to a Primary Research Topic The literature review is used to set the scene for a primary research topic and therefore can be fairly concise.
This prelim- inary evaluation should also serve to convince the reader that the researcher has considered the previous published work on the topic and that the new research they have conducted is im- portant and adds to this body of knowledge.
This sort of review is essential to introduce the study and provides a foundation for the author to formulate a discussion of the results. The Steps of the Literature Review Although these steps are presented here in a fairly linear way, the completion of the review often follows a somewhat circuitous path.
The search or search results may need to be revisited several times during topic selection. Is there a choice in the topic or is the area of interest already circumscribed?
This will ascertain whether there is already enough published literature to pro- vide a solid base for the review. Before starting, it is important to consider all possible words that might relate to the topic.
This includes synonyms and alternate terms for example, the word renal is an alternate term for kidney.
Searches can be restricted by other factors such as the language of the publication, full text only, review papers only, year of publication, and so on.
It is worth exploring the online sup- port options of the database you are using, because many da- tabases contain information on the useful search features available, or even offer online tutorials.
Most databases use a so-called controlled vocabulary to establish common search terms or keywords. This ensures a consistent way of retrieving information that may use differ- ent terminology for the same concept. This continually updated list of more than 19, terms is used by numerous health organizations, databases including MEDLINEand medical libraries to index information.
Familiarity with MeSH terms and their use will facilitate keyword selection and the resulting database searches. Spending time planning the search strategy is important, because a well-conducted search will identify the relevant ar- ticles and texts and ultimately yield higher quality work.
It is beyond the scope of this article to offer more than a brief overview of the process. However, there is a plethora of infor- mation readily available on conducting effective literature searches Figure 1.
One invaluable source of information is your local medical librarian or information specialist who may offer tutorials on searching medical databases or person- alized assistance with literature searches.Oct 12, · Article is by far, the least complicated essay in terms of format as it has only 2 components: 1.
title. 2. writer’s name. Additional tips: 1. Imagine what an article in a newspaper or magazine would look like in terms of layout and you will roughly have an idea of how to position the title as well as the by-line.
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SPM SAMPLE OF ESSAYS - DIRECTED WRITING DIRECTED WRITING: 35 MARKS. As a newspaper reporter, you have been assigned to write a report of the incident for publication in a local newspaper. Using the notes below, write out your report.
use the informal letter format; use all the points given; expand each of the points given; write in. Types of Directed Writing.
There are various types of text that will be tested in the first question. Types of text that would be tested are: 1. Speech/Talk 2.
Report 3. Informal letter 4. Formal letter Back to Home >Home >General Guidelines to Directed Writing >Common Pitfalls of Directed Writing. Jul 30, · How to Write Articles. In this Article: Article Summary Forming Your Idea Researching Your Idea Outlining Your Idea Writing Your Article Finalizing Your Work Community Q&A There are a multitude of different types of articles, including news stories, features, profiles, instructional articles, and so 81%().