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Bibliography Index The English word pagan describes either a follower of no religion or an indi- vidual of polytheistic faith. The word itself has an intriguing etymology. The religious sig- nificance of paganus, preserved in the modern English and French derivations, is believed to have arisen from the conservative rural adherence to the old gods after the Christianization of Roman towns and cities.
Paganus thus came to distinguish believers and heathens, urban and rural, military and civilian popu- lations. The entry preceding paganus in the dictionary is paganalia, a word that in the sixteenth century was freighted with religious significance and particularly associated with pre-Christian worship.
The contemporary peasant festival is thus laden with a frisson of the idolatrous past. The country farmer at the fringes of the Roman Empire be- comes the sixteenth-century Dutch peasant, similarly removed from an early modern Netherlandish culture renowned for its cities.
In both cases, the paganus is symboli- cally left behind in a changing world. Moving between paganus and peasant boer is a linguistic and social as well as a temporal shift.
Historical imagination—the reconstruction of the past but also the active creation of tradition—underpins such a translation. Coined by the English philosopher Owen Barfield, historical imagination describes the pro- cesses by which the past is re-created in the mind of the historian.
Today, Bruegel is rarely recognized as an artist concerned with history or the historical imagination. Instead, he is best known as a Renaissance artist of the every- day world, the painter of Dutch proverbs Netherlandish Proverbs, fig. Although Bruegel designed numerous religious images, landscapes, and scenes evocative of his predecessor Hieronymus Bosch fig.
This book seeks to reclaim Bruegel as an artist of the sixteenth-century histori- cal imagination, embodying the Janus-faced character of Renaissance Europe: Though centered on Bruegel, this book proposes a broader reassessment of Renaissance attitudes toward history and traces the emergence of archeological and anthropological prac- tices in historical thinking, as well as their intersections with artistic production.
The mining of classical texts, the foundation of archaeology, the study of custom, and an emerging conception of local art history were all part of reconstructing the past in the Low Countries. This book therefore is aimed not only at art historians interested in Bruegel but also at early modern historians, scholars of literature and historiography interested in the formation of Netherlandish historical identity in the sixteenth cen- tury and in competing Renaissance notions of history more generally.
Paganus naturalizes this surprising comparison by articulating the tension between past and present, local and universal, that many scholars of Renaissance culture see as emblematic of early modern thought.
Traditionally, art-historical writing on Bruegel attempts to fit the artist into one of two dominant narratives: Bruegel is either a social satirist, presenting images of the peasantry in service of a traditional cautionary moral, or Bruegel is a proto-ethnog- rapher, recording peasant culture for a newly emergent urban audience that enjoyed visiting rural festivals.
Sixteenth-century Europeans were obsessed with the search for origins.Jul 15, · These small concerns aside, Reents weaves the book’s stories together with humor, grief and slender prose, giving us all a glimpse — or a reminder — of what it feels like to wonder whether.
SM: There were a lot of points at which I was surprised. When the book first came out and I got on the New York Times list, I was nobody. There was no reason for anyone to read it. Not really. Put in the hours. Set aside time for writing, and then make yourself sit down and do it.
Sometimes it’s easy–the words flow and you can get a lot done. Other times it’s hard, and you might only get one sentence done in an hour. But that’s better than nothing. Here’s a tip that really helped me with book two and three: forget writing in order. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms, ideograms and other mnemonic symbols.
Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a full range of thoughts and ideas. This set is essential for any lover of late-'70s/early-'80s R&B.
Stephanie Mills was in the top tier, while Mtume and Lucas were heavyweights, wholly deserving of being mentioned in the same breath as the Chic Organization's Nile Rodgers and Bernard Edwards, their more popular ph-vs.com: $ If you enjoy Stephanie Klein's blog, you'll enjoy her book.
She uses the same style of writing in both. Before reading the book, I thought reading an entire novel written in the style of her blog would exhaust me, but it didn't/5().