Ethical Foundations Political philosophy has its beginnings in ethics: Since people are by nature sociable — there being few proper anchorites who turn from society to live alone — the question follows as to what kind of life is proper for a person amongst people. The philosophical discourses concerning politics thus develop, broaden and flow from their ethical underpinnings. To take a few examples:
However, a few points must be made: Vegetarian Reformers Break Away contents Donald Watson was pivotal to the emergence and early development of veganism.
He became a vegetarian in after realizing that his uncle's farm was a "death row where every creature's days were numbered by the point at which it was no longer of service to human beings" [ 0 ].
Watson later joined and become a secretary of the Vegetarian Society's branch in Leicester, England. He eventually came to believe that vegetarianism was overdue for reform, and he began "corresponding with a very small number of people, scattered far and wide" who shared his concerns.
One point he made during this period is that "the cow feels the loss of her calf in much the same way that a human mother would feel the loss of her child" [ 2 ].
Watson was opposed to consuming birds' eggs but they had "all but vanished" from the English market during the time of World War II, so ruminants' milk became a focus [ 3 ]. Among his arguments [ 4 ]: In order to maintain the stability of any poultry business most of these cocks have to be killed off.
One of Watson's earliest comrades was Leslie Crosswho became vegan in and was vice president of the Vegan Society by [ 5 ].
Watson considered Cross a "great friend" and said he "must be put in the records" as an "outstanding" and "faithful" contributor to the cause of veganism. To address a practical hurdle on some people's path to veganism, Cross founded the Plantmilk Society in After five years this effort gave rise to Plamil, a company that in began selling a canned soy milk concentrate in London shops.
Cross described his objections to using cows for milk in a letter printed by The Vegetarian Messenger [ 6 ]: Milk and its derivatives are products of pain, suffering, and abominable interference with the law of love. In AugustWatson and Sally Shrigley tried to accommodate them [ 7 ].
They asked the Vegetarian Society to form an official non-dairy subgroup and set aside space in The Vegetarian Messenger to facilitate communication both among their faction and with those not yet convinced. Soon after being turned down, the duo convened a meeting with five others in London [ 8 ].
That day a new and independent society was established that took a name, which Watson had previously coined with his spouse Dorothy Morgan, derived from "the beginning and end of vegetarian". Their first manifesto, from Novemberpresented two objectives and text expounding upon them [ 9 ]: The Vegan Society seeks to abolish man's dependence on animals, with its inevitable cruelty and slaughter, and to create instead a more reasonable and humane order of society.
Whilst honouring the efforts of all who are striving to achieve the emancipation of man and of animals, The Vegan Society suggests that results must remain limited so long as the exploitation in food and clothing production is ignored. The Vegan Society is eager that it should be realised how closely the meat and dairy produce industries are related.
The atrocities of dairy farming are, in some ways, greater than those of the meat industry but they are more obscured by ignorance. Moreover, The Vegan Society asserts that the use of milk in any form after the period of weaning is biologically wrong and that, except when taken directly from the mother, it becomes polluted and unsafe.
The Society, therefore, sees no honourable alternative but to challenge the traditions of orthodoxy by advocating a completely revised dietary based on reason and humane principle and guided by science and [designed] to meet physiological requirements.
It is not suggested that Veganism alone would be sufficient to solve all the problems of individual and social-well being, but so closely is its philosophy linked with morality, hygiene, aesthetics and agricultural economy that its adoption would remedy many unsatisfactory features of present-day life.
Thus, if the curse of exploitation were removed, spiritual influences, operating for good, would develop conditions assuring a greater degree of happiness and prosperity for all.
November is also when Watson personally wrote, printed, and distributed the premiere issue of The Vegan News, which served as the society's periodical until being replaced in by The Vegan, a magazine still printed today [ 10 ].
He offered an analogy that identified the fundamental problem and suggested the necessity of abolition: However, his primary tasks were laying the groundwork for an organized contingent and presenting their case for an herbivorous diet.
This focus must be seen in light of the limited nutritional knowledge available at the time. Watson admitted they were "still without much data concerning the merits of diets free from animal food".
Vitamin B12 was a few years away from even being discovered [ 11 ]. The society's Eva Batt wrote in that owing to a dearth of "knowledge and experience", along with an excess of "enthusiasm", some vegan "pioneers developed symptoms of diet deficiencies and a few suffered much both physically and socially" [ 12 ].
In Leslie Cross reflected on these events [ 13 ]: I must give my reason: Healthy vegans rather naturally went unremarked. It appears that some human beings have lost the natural ability to use the vitamin B12 synthesised by microbiological action in their own intestines.
Some have not lost this ability:Confucianism is often characterized as a system of social and ethical philosophy rather than a religion. In fact, Confucianism built on an ancient religious foundation to establish the social values, institutions, and transcendent ideals of traditional Chinese society.
This essay focuses on the first few decades of the original Vegan Society. It was partly written to support the contention that veganism is a rejection of nonhuman exploitation that goes beyond dietary guidelines.
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